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Central Bank of Ireland
New Wapping Street
North Wall Quay
Abstract: This paper examines international portfolio debt issuance through Irish-resident Special Purpose Entities (SPEs). Using a unique new dataset covering the population of Irish-resident SPEs reporting to the Central Bank of Ireland over the period 2005-2017, we identify cross-country debt financing links channelled through SPEs. The empirical analysis suggests that tax optimisation is an important motive, particularly for sponsors of Irish-resident securitisation vehicles, while investor protection and financial development are important additional considerations for sponsors of non-securitisation vehicles.
Abstract: This paper calculates foreign assets and liabilities for Ireland that are more reflective of foreign activities of Irish-resident entities. This is accomplished by stripping from the Irish international investment position the intermediation component that arises from the activities of investment funds and special purpose entities and, to some extent, correcting distortions arising from redomiciled PLCs, intellectual property transfers and aircraft leasing. My estimations not only reduce substantially gross external positions, but also shrink the extent of Irish net foreign indebtedness from 280 to 80 per cent of modified gross national income.
Abstract: In this paper, we empirically assess the importance of gravity-type variables and measures of macroeconomic and financial volatilities in explaining portfolio holdings denominated across the main global currencies: US dollar (USD), euro (EUR), Pound sterling (GBP), Japanese yen (JPY) and Swiss franc (CHF). Our findings underscore the importance of trade ties and membership of the euro area. We also find that international positions co-move with the level of macroeconomic and financial uncertainty. Importantly, we identify heterogeneous patterns at a currency level.
Abstract: This paper studies the bilateral determinants of the international asset positions of banks, and subsequent bilateral adjustment during the global financial crisis and ensuing recovery phase. We find empirical support for traditional gravity-type variables. Exploiting a comprehensive dataset of bilateral bank assets, combined with a cross-country database on capital controls and macroeconomic policies, empirical evidence is provided for the effects of macroeconomic tools on the portfolio reallocation of internationally active banks. Specifically, higher current account balances in recipient countries are associated with higher inflows in debt assets, while restrictions on asset inflows and higher central bank reserves are related to lower cross-border flows of bank investment during the crisis and post-crisis periods, with heterogeneous effects across asset type. Finally, stronger institutions in recipient countries are positively associated with the international investment of banks, with inflows to debt assets being the most sensitive asset category across the financial cycle.
Abstract: This paper documents the dynamic properties of the current account, trade balance and international capital flows. For this purpose, two approaches are taken: probit and a nonparametric estimation. The probabilistic approach shows that, in general, deficits and net inflows tend to be more persistent than surpluses and net outflows. This result is robust to either specification of pooled and country-specific probits. The results of non-parametric estimation are in line with the results obtained from the probit.
Abstract: This paper analyses optimal policy on the basis that the economy comprises a number of different sectors. It shows that the composition of output matters, that policy should take into account the source of shocks as well as their aggregate magnitude, and that policy tools impacting individual sectors can be significantly welfare improving. If sectoral policy is not adopted, then commitment in tax policy is important in similar ways and for similar reasons to commitment in monetary policy. With sectoral policy, commitment for tax and monetary policies ceases to be important.
Abstract: This paper contributes to empirical research on the dynamics of the terms of trade. We start by proposing a method for constructing different measures of the terms of trade. This is achieved by estimating a range of substitution elasticities using a panel data approach and highly disaggregated data on trade flows. Next, various measures of the terms of trade and trade margins are related to productivity and demand proxies. We find that domestic demand side movements are positively related to the terms of trade, while domestic productivity gains result in a deterioration of the terms of trade. Our results suggest that higher relative productivity raises the real component of exports relative to imports along the intensive margin inducing a weakening of the terms of trade.